Service dog breeding has a long history, both in our country and around the world. The impetus for its development was the immediate need for animals that could take on certain work functions.
They not only had to help a person in the performance of heavy physical work, but also carry out more complex activities that require endurance, strength, delicate scent, innate courage and dedication, as well as intelligence, that is, qualities that are inherently abundant in dogs. That is how service dogs appeared.
In ancient times, large dogs were even used as fighting animals or fighting dogs, but these days their service is usually peaceful. It does not decrease, but on the contrary, the need for “specialists” of traditional professions grows: shepherds, watchmen, guide dogs. Dogs work on the smell track, help in the search for ore and gas. In place of dying dog specialties come new, such as drug discovery or the search for victims of earthquakes under the rubble of buildings.
And although the work of working dogs is sometimes simply invaluable in many spheres of human activity, they are increasingly being turned up at home as companions, bearing in mind that the main canine “profession” is a man’s friend.
The owner of such a dog must be aware of all responsibility for the maintenance of the animal. Every large dog (and all without exception, representatives of the official breeds are such), especially living in the city, should be well brought up. Otherwise, its owner is constantly exposed to various troubles, and the lives of others - danger. Almost all service dogs need a certain job, which is increasingly replaced by general, and then service training.
In addition, every owner should know that a service dog cannot get a breeding class without having a diploma of passing at least one training course. A large and strong dog needs regular long walks to maintain good physical condition, the opportunity to frolic without a leash in open space. A properly balanced full-fledged diet (read more about dog food), which requires considerable material costs, plays a very important role in the cultivation and maintenance. Precisely because it needs the most time-consuming care, the service dog is the least suited to the role of a fashionable toy.
Now Caucasian Shepherd Dogs have become fashionable in Russian cynology, collie have long been popular. Before you buy such a dog, think about what you were guided by when choosing whether you weighed everything. After all, bringing the puppy into a small apartment, the owners often do not think that in just a few months it will grow to such an extent that it will be difficult to find a corner in the house where the dog would not interfere, taking up too much space.
A young healthy animal, agile and inquisitive, will not lie on its bedding for a long time. For the formation of close contact with the dog, the owner must find a friend of a suitable temperament, otherwise mutual understanding will not be achieved. A calm, dignified St. Bernard or Newfoundland will irritate an overly energetic person, and it is difficult for a phlegmatic person to spend even several hours in a company of a mobile and cheerful collie or a cheerful Airedale Terrier.
So the choice is made. You need a dog with which you can safely make late walks, quietly entrust her child and be confident in the safety of household goods. But which breed is yours?
In Russia, ten breeds are used directly for work. These are five shepherd dogs - a German, Scottish, Caucasian, Central Asian and South Russian - black terrier, Moscow watchdog, Airedale, a schnauzer and rottweiler. The rest, whose service is impossible because of climatic conditions or simply because of the lack of relevant traditions, are used in European countries. In Russia, they are called sports-service and they are usually divorced by amateurs.
The most famous service dogs - shepherd
They are bred for grazing sheep, which is reflected in the name. However, these dogs have long been successfully mastered many other specialties. The universal and most popular breed in the world is the German Shepherd. She is amenable to any special training and can carry any service.
These are beautiful dogs of classical appearance: black with a tan, with a large, proudly planted head, erect ears and a long saber tail. Thick, short, close-fitting coat makes the dog suitable for open keeping.
Undoubtedly, the resemblance to the wolf gave rise to a widespread judgment that the breed originated directly from these forest predators. The height of the German Shepherd Dog at the withers is 56-66 cm. For a long time, we have bred only one type of breed - Eastern European, whose representatives are somewhat larger and lighter colored. This dog can be safely recommended for any use, it will always meet your expectations.
Recently, three domestic shepherd dogs have become especially popular - Caucasian, South Russian and Central Asian. These dogs also cause great interest abroad, and therefore are actively exported from Russia as a rare living souvenir. The most widely known Caucasian Shepherd. This dog, bred in the mountains of Georgia as a shepherd, turned out to be indispensable for guard duty.
In the cities, a huge, unusually strong, furry sheepdog is turned up like a reliable watchman. If she lets the uninvited guests into the apartment, she will never let go back. But in no case should a Caucasian be taken to a person who has never had a dog before. By nature, this animal is quite malicious, with a very closed character, and you need to be able to achieve its obedience. If you have managed to establish the right relationship, and your pet has figured out forever who is the indisputable authority for him, you will never have to complain about this faithful and reliable companion.
The South Russian Shepherd Dog is not just a clump of white whipped wool, but a creature strict and independent. Appearance, promising good-natured phlegmatic, in this case is deceptive. The dog is mistrustful to strangers, very attentive and alert, it was not without reason that the flocks of the Crimean khans trusted it. This is a wonderful caretaker and a good friend.
The Central Asian Shepherd Dogs are of two types - sleek and long-haired. These sedentary dogs tolerate the heat quite well, but with open content it is still necessary to protect them from direct sunlight. Two or three such dogs can guard a huge herd, one - a few rooms, so that only at first glance it seems that the dog is lazy and does not pay attention to anything. The path to the heart of this breed is not easy, it recognizes the owner and will submit only to those who truly love her, which, however, does not preclude reasonable coercion.
Scottish shepherd, collie is also a shepherd's dog. She bred in the south of England. She has a wonderful disposition - light, cheerful, affectionate. This is a dog with a very fine psychic organization: you cannot shout at it, it easily takes offense at the injustice of the owner, and understands all the nuances of family members' relationships.
Collie requires that she pay attention not only during feeding and walking, but also just talked to her and caressed. In order for a luxurious wool to have a rich and attractive look, it needs to be combed regularly. Collie is a wonderful caretaker, a kind nurse for children, an intelligent guide to the blind, that is, almost any canine specialty can learn, helped by its rare acumen and versatile natural talent.
Among the approximately four hundred breeds currently known to dog handlers, two were bred in the Soviet Union and not so long ago received the status of a breed. This is a black terrier and a Moscow watchdog.
The Black Terrier is a large dog with a thick, slightly curly coat. This hardy, physically strong dog was obtained by crossing an Airedale, a schnauzer, and a Rottweiler. Breed combines such qualities as courage, reasonable malice, an extraordinary mind. The owner of the black terrier should be an experienced dog handler, not allowing the dog to take over the top and able to provide it with proper training. Unsurpassed as a watchman, the black terrier is also suitable for other jobs where subtle instinct, strength and courage are required.
Moscow Watchdog - the successful result of the crossing of St. Bernards and Caucasian Shepherds. Appearance the dog inherited from good-natured rescuers, and its severe and uncompromising character - from Caucasians, which allows it to successfully carry out the service declared by the name of the breed.
The Doberman and Giant Schnauzer belong to the breeds originating from the ancient shakaloobraznyh dogs and have a common ancestor - the German Pinscher, practically unknown outside their homeland and resembling a Doberman in miniature.
The Doberman is an excellent working dog with well-developed muscles; can with appropriate training, which is allowed to begin only in adulthood, to take quite high obstacles. Character - swift and quick-tempered, but not aggressive. This is a slender black dog or chocolate with a beautiful streamlined shape. To themselves like Dobermans are not particularly peace-loving, and dog fights often occur precisely with his “feed”. As a watchman, he knows no equal, but he can successfully master other areas of activity.
Giant Schnauzer - dog for the whole family. He will gladly carry a non-heavy bag with purchases, will be fun to tinker with the children, and in the absence of the owners he will work as a watchman, then to meet them with a joyful bark - to “report” that everything is in order. This sociable, benevolent dog adores ballgame on a green lawn, willingly takes part in your country walks, usually learns to ride in a car without much trouble.
The dog's hard coat does not need any other care, except for the trimming done every six months - plucking off the dead guard hair. The dog is naturally obedient, but still it is not a toy, and the issue of education must be approached accordingly, only then Risen will become a worthy companion of your family.
Among the terriers there are only two service dogs that unconditionally belong to service. This is a black terrier and airedale terrier. The Airedale Terrier is close to a Giant Schnauzer and Doberman, its later ancestors include the English Terrier, which is the common ancestor of all terriers in general. Airedale Terrier - the ideal dog for keeping in an apartment.
Relatively small size, playful "terrier" disposition, docile nature, innate sharpness - the combination of these qualities make Erdel a wonderful friend. A man who once had a dog of this breed is tied to it for life. Airedale Terrier wool and impressed requires the same care. This terrier bred in England is characterized by purely British reasoning and famous English humor. Reliable watchman, tracing dog, guide blind, nanny - this is not a complete list of possible occupations Erdel.
Modern dogoobraznye dogs descended directly from the fighting dogs that took part in the legendary battles of ancient times. Each of the six breeds described below is completely individual, and sometimes it is difficult to believe that, for example, boxer and newfoundland have a common ancestor.
Dog is one of the largest dogs on earth. Smooth wool dyed can be different: the standard allows several options. These proud and majestic animals are very sensitive to climate, they easily catch cold, they need to be protected from drafts and sudden changes in temperature. Dog utterly devoted to the owners. He is well guarded apartment. Light, non-capricious (although there are no rules without exception), the character makes a slim handsome man a perfect friend of every person who loves animals. The dog independently establishes contact with every member of the family and builds relationships on an honest, uncompromising basis, because he cannot tolerate lies and deceit.
Rottweiler - a dog rather malicious, phlegmatic, but with a good reaction. At home, in Germany, at one time it was used as a powerful heavy truck. But a wonderful mind, reckless courage and rare instinct soon predetermined another use of the Rottweiler. Now it is mainly a search or guard dog, which, due to its brilliant qualities, deserves wider distribution. The prejudice against the Rottweilers is completely groundless - they simply dislike familiarity and unconditionally obey only the master.
The boxer is full of his own, special charm. An expressive face can depict all shades of mood, and the movements of the shortly docked tail also help it, which always looks especially touching. The boxer lasts longer than any other breed, has a puppyish character, but already in its very early childhood it learns the main commands. This white-breasted, red-haired dog in a black velvet "mask" is a reliable protector and the most loyal friend you could wish for.
St. Bernard is a charming giant who will suit everyone who is not looking for an ardent temperament in a dog. This massive red-white dog will go for the owner and into the fire and into the water and, of course, on any walk, although his long hikes tire him. The famous St. Bernard profession is a lifeguard in the snowy mountains. In this service, it is successfully applied to this day. Shaggy "fur coat" reliably protects the dog from the cold, and the love of people and almost fantastic instinct make it possible to find those in trouble even under a deep layer of snow.
Newfoundland is also a lifeguard, only water. This giant swims and dives perfectly. Luxurious wool, completely black or white with black spots (landzier), and a good temper make this breed one of the most attractive. Not without reason, even in places far from natural water bodies, newfows are more and more frequent. One should never forget about the natural inclinations of the animal, and therefore it is desirable for Newfies to at least several times a year seek the opportunity to swim. These dogs are very fond of children, passive by nature, but optimistic.
Labrador is a breed that is becoming more and more popular in Russia every day. Labradors are closely related to the Newfoundlands. Previously, they helped fishermen to pull nets ashore, and now they have mastered a whole range of professions. This is a beautiful black dog with a semi-long adherent coat. The “intelligent”, even character of the Labrador makes him capable of doing the most varied service, and most importantly, turns him into a pleasant and full of self-worth companion.
Other breeds are bred abroad. Thanks to the efforts of enthusiasts, copies of some of them have already appeared in Russia. This is Mastino and Irish Wolfhound.
Do not believe when they say: "There are no best breeds." The best is yours.