From time immemorial, hunting huskies, or, as they were called, northern eared dogs, are indispensable and faithful helpers of man in everyday life and in work. The origin of this one of the most ancient groups of domestic dogs goes back centuries, to fossil primitive dogs: the jackal-shaped peat-spitz, or the dog of pile structures, the wolf-like dog of Inostrantsev and others.
They were a transitional form from the first wild representatives of the canine tamed in the Stone Age.
The subsequent separation of eared dog-like animals is associated with the specialization of the primitive economy in geographic zones. Three main groups were outlined: the shepherd's, or deer-legged, hunting and riding.
A special role belonged to hunting likes. For the tribes that inhabited a vast forest area, dogs were the most important tool of hunting, which was the main means of subsistence for local residents. Breeding occurred in direct proportion to the geographical and climatic characteristics of the regions, under conditions characteristic of the primitive economy of the clan system.
History of hunting huskies
To this day, research is being conducted and there are disputes about which wild ancestors participated in the formation of breeds of hunting huskies. Difficult housing conditions and hunting, the severity of the northern climate have developed in dogs exceptional endurance, adaptability and unpretentiousness.
The distribution of huskies was very large. The whole north of the forest of the European part of the country, Siberia and the Far East. Even on the frescoes of ancient Russia there are images of witty dogs with curled tails, surprisingly similar to the huskies. Some species are available in Scandinavia and Canada.
In pre-revolutionary Russia, amateur hunting was the privilege of the nobility. The brigands used in hunting in Peru imported breeds, mainly of island (English) cops, and the wormfolds used some breeds of hounds, which later acquired their specificity, as auxiliary ones.
At the end of the last century, the famous hunters-naturalists M.G. Dmitriev-Sulima and A.A. Shirinsky-Shikhmatov tried to characterize and describe the indigenous breeds of huskies (Ostyak, Vogul, Even, Zyryan, Voyat, Lamut, etc.). At that time, the geographical isolation of the fishing areas still allowed the aboriginal offspring to be kept “clean”.
Hunters and dog experts S.А. Buturlin and L.P.Sabaneev somewhat later paid serious attention to hunting laika, and the first one warned: “We have to hurry with the work of studying individual breeds of laika: after all, where the steam transport penetrates, various dogs, hunting and others, get, and, consequently, mix with local likes and spoil the breed. "
In those days, likes were considered low-organization dogs, and hunting with them did not satisfy demanding amateur hunters. Laek unflatteringly called "peasant". At the beginning of the century, progressive hunting specialists began to show an increased interest in the ethological study of the offspring of hunting huskies.
Radical changes occurred after the October Revolution. Publications in special editions began to appear, and expeditions to study huskies in the places of their distribution were organized. There were first attempts at breeding, first in the east, and then in several areas of the European part. The second half of the twenties is significant with the appearance of huskies at exhibitions and the beginning of trial field trials. The examination was carried out without dividing by offspring: the same way the breeding of dogs was carried out.
In 1931, Professor N.A. Smirnov attempted to classify huskies on the basis of zoological origin, with the release of two types - wolf-like and shakaloobrazny. Further study did not confirm the correctness of this division, but showed that most of the huskies can belong to a mixed type.
In 1939, at the cynological meeting, the temporary standards of huskies were adopted:
Finno-Karelian, Karelian, Komi (Zyryansky), Mansiysk (Vogulsky), Khanty (Ostyak). But practically the expertise at exhibitions and breeding were conducted in the old way. However, the foundations of the breeding work on the creation of cultural factory breeds of huskies were laid.
At about the same time, on the initiative of the Ural hunting enthusiasts with huskies - A.Safronov and others - the rules of field trials were developed and adopted. The Great Patriotic War interrupted the work begun, but already in 1943-1944 state nurseries of fishing huskies were established. You can not ignore the participation of huskies in the war, along with other breeds of working dogs. They served in sledding, as well as miners, nurses, communications workers.
After the war, in the taiga fishing areas there was a sharp deterioration in the breeding population, the influx of foreign dogs increased in them. Free keeping and breeding made themselves felt.
The correct tribal management of laykovodstva moved to the central regions of the country. New attempts to form factory breeds began. We worked with imported material, which significantly complicated the selection, and the question of a new classification arose.
In 1947, at the suggestion of the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Hunting, the All-Russian Cynological Conference convened by the Glavokhota RSFSR adopted a draft new classification based on the geographical principle of merging close offspring.
The project provided for the formation of four factory breeds: Karelian-Finnish, Russian-European, West Siberian and East Siberian. In 1952, the permanent standards of the first three breeds were approved, and the fourth - temporary. In the same year, new rules of examination were adopted at exhibitions and broods, and breeding and breeding work began to be conducted separately. Initially, this decision caused a lot of controversy and censure; evidence provided by experts using proven animal breeding methods confirmed its reasonableness.
Not much time has passed since the beginning of intensive breeding to talk about the diversity of the gene pool. However, by the 1970s, the formation of three factory breeds had taken place, the quantitative and qualitative indicators had improved in the regions where targeted selection had been made.
In the process of breeding work, some shortcomings were revealed, and in 1979-1980 three standards were corrected, and a permanent was approved for the East Siberian breed. At the same time, all the rules for field testing of huskies for various hunting objects were refined and refined.
At present, the likes are the most numerous of the hunting breeds. They are widely distributed and used throughout the country and abroad.
Hunting breeds differ in appearance from their witty congeners, deer and sleds, by the type of constitution, head shape, coat, behavior and in some cases color.
Common to the breeds of hunting laika
The four standardized breeds of hunting huskies also have certain differences, but they also have common articles:
- Growth from below average to above average, from dry to strong dry type of the constitution.
- Wedge-shaped heads with a blurred transition from the forehead to the muzzle, erect, triangular-shaped ears, dark eyes in an oblique cut, hard dense coat with a soft rich undercoat.
- On the head and on the ears, the hair is short, on the neck and on the shoulders it is developed more magnificently and forms a collar (collar), and upon meeting with hair growing on the cheekbones, it forms tanks.
- The legs are covered with short dense hair, on the back side is somewhat elongated.
- On the paws, short and hard wool breaks between the fingers and forms a “brush”.
- The pad is dry, strong, developed, the neck is well set, oval in cross section. Levers well pronounced. Type of behavior - balanced, with well-developed hunting instinct and indicative reaction.
- Excellent feeling, hearing and vision, coupled with an energetic persistent search, with a ringing informative voice create an excellent complex. Tail in the ring.
- A characteristic move at work is a wide trot with a gallop. Special importance is attached to the teeth - only the complete formula of white, strong, tight-fitting, having a scissors bite teeth is considered to be an unconditional breed characteristic.
- Maliciousness to man is not typical. Likes Monogamous and have exceptional devotion.
- Disqualifying faults include: coarse, damp with a heavy gable head, ears hanging, semi-erect, with dangling tops, long, soft, protruding, wavy or too short awn, lack of undercoat. The tail is a half ring, sultan, log. Color - coffee and tiger.
Formed on the basis of Karelian and Olonets offspring, it is close in appearance to the Finnish husky, but it is significantly different in its working qualities. She has the ability to work in many species of hunting animals and birds, similar to other breeds of huskies.
It is the smallest of the Huskies. The height at withers for males is 42-50 cm, for bitches 38-46 cm. The format is almost square, the extension index is 100-102 cm and 100-104 cm, respectively. The type of behavior is mobile, lively, with a well-developed orientation reaction and a pronounced hunting passion . The characteristic move in the work is a gallop, alternating with a trot.
Type of constitution dry and dry strong. The head is moderately wedge-shaped, dry, approaching an equilateral triangle; transition from the forehead to the face pronounced; pointed gable; its length is less than the skull; the lines of the skull and gable are parallel. Ears strictly set, small. Eyes in an oblique cut dark. (Sunken, round, very small and light are disadvantages.)
The neck is well set. Well developed, back straight, undermining pronounced, loin slightly arched. Withers stand out above the line of the back, especially in males. The articulation of the arms is well defined, the legs are parallel, the metacarpus is sheer, the paw is arched. Special importance is given to color: reddish of all shades is considered to be pedigree, light fawn is undesirable. Other colors put the dog outside the breed.
(detailed description of Karelian-Finnish likes and photos)
Medium height, dry strong type of constitution. It was formed from the confluence of close offspring of the forest zone of the European part of the country (Komi, Arkhangelsk, Karelian, Udmurt, etc.).
The growth of males is 52–58 cm, the bough is 48–54 cm, the stretch index is 100–103 and 100–105 cm. The type of behavior is balanced, agile, with well-developed orientation reaction and hunting passion. Viciousness to man is not typical. The characteristic color is black with white and white with black, gray is undesirable, red is vicious, other colors put the dog outside the breed.
Abundant specks on the limbs in the same color as the color are undesirable. Head dry; when viewed from above, it approaches an equilateral triangle; occipital part relatively wide. Muzzle pointed, slightly shorter than the skull; gable lines and heads parallel; the transition is pronounced, but not dramatically. Ears set high.
Eyes dark obliquely. The type is characterized by pronounced cheekiness. The neck is normally set, dry. Withers pronounced, especially in males. The pad is close to square, well developed. The back is strong, muscular; The loin is wide, slightly convex; the belly is visibly embedded.
The articulation of the levers is well defined; paw arched, tight; legs are parallel; Metacarposa sheer The type of coat is common for huskies. Tail in the ring. The characteristic gait in the work is a gallop, alternating with a trot.
West Siberian Like
The dog is of medium and above average height, strong dry type of constitution. Created on the basis of the offspring of the forest belt of the Urals and Western Siberia, mainly of the Khanty and Mansiysk.
The type of behavior is balanced, agile with a well-developed orientation reaction. Height at withers for males is 55-62 cm, for females 51-58 cm, the index of stretch for males is 103-107 cm, bitch 104-108 cm. The head is dry, pointed, approaching in shape to an elongated isosceles triangle, with a moderately wide skull.
The muzzle is sharp, but not narrow, with an extension in the canine region, the length is equal to or less than the length of the skull. Ears high set in the shape of an elongated triangle; the lobe is poorly developed. Eyes in sharply oblique incision, dark brown or brown in any color; the lines of the muzzle and the forehead are parallel, the lips are dry and tight.
The transition is smooth. (Convex forehead, excessively smooth transition, cheekiness, weakly pronounced parietal crest and occiput, tuberculosis belong to the category of flaws. Severe flaws relate to defects.) The neck is dry, properly set.
Withers pronounced; the pad is moderately stretched; the chest is wide and deep; back straight; undermining mild; The loin is wide, slightly convex. The articulation of the levers is well defined, the tarsus is set vertically.
Paw oval, in a lump; middle fingers somewhat elongated; the presence of profit is undesirable. Coat is characteristic of other breeds. The color is white, zonary and pied, gray, red and brown of all shades. Krap on the head and limbs in color tint - a disadvantage.
Krap is not in the same color in the same places, as well as the color black and black with white (not zonarny) - defects. The tail bears a ring. A characteristic move at work is a wide trot, alternating at a gallop.
East Siberian Like
The hunting dog of the tundra and forest-tundra belt of Eastern Siberia, created on the basis of close offspring and first of all Evenkys. The largest format.
Height 55-64 cm in males and 51-60 cm in females. The stretch index, respectively 104-109 cm and 107-112 cm, is a balanced type of behavior, mobile, has a pronounced passion in the work on the beast.
Dog strong or strong dry constitution. In the cynological centers of Eastern Siberia, there is the most numerous population in comparison with other breeds of huskies. Distinguished by its late maturity. Viciousness to man is not typical. Characteristic move - a wide trot with the transition to a gallop.
The head is moderately wedge-shaped, approaching an equilateral triangle; cranial box developed; muzzle somewhat shorter than the skull; cheekbones are not pronounced; moderate transition. Gable slightly dull lips dry. The ears are set at eye level, in a slight collapse, well lowered inside.
Eyes oval (preferably almond-shaped), not sunken and not on the roll out; The color is dark brown or brown in any color of the dog. The neck is properly set. Withers pronounced; block developed; back strong wide, straight; rib reaches the elbows; the belly is not firmly fixed; croup wide sloping.
Joint angles are pronounced; legs are parallel; metacarpal sheer; paw rounded in a ball; dewclaws are valid. The coat is similar to that of other breeds. Color black and pied, black, gray, red and brown of all shades. Preferred black with tan, zonary (karamisty).
Suppose krap on limbs in color tone. Tail ring or sickle, it is allowed to keep the tail of the sickle without touching the back. Exterior drawing in the total mass has not yet consolidated.
Required qualities of hunting laika
Possessing exceptional hunting instinct, having received from their wild ancestors highly developed hearing and smell, perseverance and excellent fighting qualities, which was then developed and reinforced by artificial selection, huskies are widely used in various types of hunting for the beast (from a small chipmunk to a formidable forest host - bear).
Some hunters have a misconception about the work of the bird huskies. They should not be equated to the category of "mongrel-crushers." A well-trained husky takes the bird in a soft bite and often the siblings brought by the dog fly off the hands of a person without damage. A dog that is well found in a bird becomes very mined, and in the ability to feed from water and very strong places, it is unlikely that another dog can compare with it.
The quality of a hunting husky largely depends on the correct approach to training, applied individually to each individual. There is a long-held view that likes are more easily spoiled than delivered. Congenital hunting reflexes in huskies are quite complex and much depends on the correct understanding of this.
Features of the work of hunting huskies are in their following properties. Using the whole complex of feelings, the hunting passion developed by nature and the nature of hunting hunted by nature, she independently finds and delays the beast or bird until the hunter comes, letting her be aware of her location.
There is such an opinion - “Not the dog that drives the beast and barks to the best, but that dog that persuades”.
With a special passion and interest, the likes work by squirrel. This type of hunting has been passed down from generation to generation for many centuries and is classic. It takes a refined skill to detect and pinpoint a small animal hiding in the thick of coniferous trees, to trace it to the hunter’s approach.
Borovoy hunting has some similarities with work on squirrel, marten and sable, but also its differences. A raised bird does not always grow in front of a dog’s eyes and does not always withstand barking.
Работа по водоплавающей дичи требует большой выносливости и силы, а также и хороших защитных свойств шерстного покрова. На такой охоте лайка должна своим поведением насторожить охотника и подать птицу под выстрел, а главное безотказно и четко приносить отстреленную дичь в руки. Hunting for grouse broods and pheasants is similar to duck, but takes place in easier conditions.
A hunting husky is an independent dog, and therefore in the work on the beast the hunter is required to observe special rules of behavior. You can not create excessive noise, straighten the dog with various sound commands. By working dog should be approached silently, constantly be on the lookout.
Dog bark only stopped the beast. A broken voice indicates that the beast is moving. Here the hunter must be especially attentive. In the hunt for large ungulates, along with instinct, hearing and eyesight, a quick, deep search, viscosity, high skill of setting the beast and a sense of distance are required in order not to get hit by the front legs. The work on the boar is even more difficult and dangerous - a swift and maneuverable beast, skillfully using powerful fangs.
Huskies working on a bear have exceptional courage and mastery of attack. This hunt is divided into two types. In one, the likes are used to find lairs, in the second one they work along a navigation star-ryu. In both cases, the dog must have a strong build and endurance, because the hunt is carried out on good snow.
It is required to watch the lair from the hay females, let the hunter know, and at the approach, if possible, help expel the beast.
It is much more difficult and more dangerous to work on a traveling bear, where special fearlessness and wickedness are required from a dog in order to enter into combat with a powerful predator. A laika should show all sorts of combat qualities and techniques inherent only in this breed to detain the beast and at the same time not suffer from retaliatory attacks. At the moment of delay, give an informative go-los.
Good husky bearies - a rarity. But practice speaks of the possibility of artificial selection to develop these valuable qualities in separate groups.
Hunting huskies are also used for some species of burrow land and semi-aquatic animals. They are required to quickly detect an animal hiding in a hole, heap of dead trees, rhizomes or coastal holes, to show courage and pick-up during its capture.
She likes to successfully apply the wounded animals for a blood trail - she performs this old duty very well. The development and consolidation of working qualities is one of the fundamentals of conducting plenary work with hunting breeds of their huskies.
At regularly working test stations, according to the Rules of conducting field tests, qualified experts identify and evaluate the working qualities of dogs for a particular type of hunting. Periodically, various competitions and match meetings are organized.
The results of the entire large breeding work are summarized at broods and exhibitions. On broods of young stock, producers are estimated and the current selection direction is determined. At dog shows, in addition to exterior ratings, they receive comprehensive assessments. The valuation includes: hunting qualities, the origin and quality of offspring. Depending on the results, dogs are divided into breeding classes and receive the corresponding rewards. The best are members of the breeding structure and they carry out planned breeding work with them.