St. Bernard has a rectangular constitution, i.e. him torso longer than the height at the withers. The backbone of St. Bernard is stronger than all other dogs.
Learn more about what standard the St. Bernard breed and its characteristics.
Muscles are strong and at the same time long. Hence the exceptional strength of his muscles, which is combined with great mobility.
Impressive size head ideally expresses all the strength and nobility of this giant among dogs. The head is angular, with prominently protruding bones. It is about 36% of the height at the withers.
A characteristic feature of the breed is the convergence of the longitudinal upper axes of the skull and the muzzle. The zygomatic arches strongly protrude. In the anterior part of the skull, the tubercles are well defined, the eye arcs are no less clearly expressed, as a result of which the transition from the forehead to the nose forms a right angle. Skull very wide. In males, it is more in width than in length. The length is 64% of the length of the entire head.
Muzzle extremely thick. Its length is 34% of the length of the entire head. Nasal canal straight, very wide, flat. Nose thick with wide nostrils and completely black. The muzzle in front is flat and wide, has the shape of a cube. The lips are big and thick. Jaws are massive, curved. Pincer bite, scissor. Teeth stand out slightly ahead. The incisors form a straight line.
Earsmedium sized, hanging, high, wide at the base.
Eyes medium sized, moderately sinking. Located in a subfrontal position, hence the look as from under the forehead. Color - dark brown.
Chest strongly developed in all three parameters, which is quite natural for such physical strength. In the area of the elbows the chest is lowered. The spine is straight, the withers are long and strongly elevated, the loins are short, the croup is horizontal, which is typical of all mountain dogs.
Limbs very strong, long and muscular. Feet wide and rounded.
The angle of the shoulder with the humerus is markedly underlined. While the ankle angle is moderate enough, which is also characteristic of all dog breeds.
Tailt high set, thick at the base, very heavy and long.
Wool in individuals with so-called short hair, has a moderately short length - up to 5 cm. Good fit, thick, dense, but not coarse. In individuals with long hair, it has an average length - up to 8 cm. A typical color is white-red or red-white. Wool variegated, where mostly white - should not have specks and spots darkish color. Be sure to be white collar, bow trunk, dewlap, feet and tip of the tail.
St. Bernard belongs to the breeds of dogs of large size and is characterized by maximum growth, impressive appearance and aristocratic posture. Stipulated by the standard
growth is not less than 70 cm at the withers - for a dog and not less than 65 cm for a bitch.
These values are clearly too low, since, in theory, the absolute minimum would be 78 - 80 cm for males, and 70 - 72 cm for bitches. However, in the homeland of the St. Bernards dogs - in Switzerland - such values were rejected, because there the dogs have really lower height and Swiss dog breeders simply could not agree to such a “standard”.
Fortunately, the maximum height of the standard is not provided and, in addition to St. Bernard, this applies to two more dog breeds - the Great Dane and the Irish Wolfhound (Irish Wolfhound), having the same height as that of the St. Bernard. There were instances of growth of 90–100 (!) Cm. One of them, height 96 cm, was distinguished by such a harmonious physique and moved so beautifully that in the 70s he regularly became a champion of exhibitions.
The Italian variety of St. Bernard has the largest size, and therefore is in demand abroad, particularly in Germany, Denmark and the same Switzerland, where they are used to improve the breed characteristics. It is quite obvious that such a characteristic as big growth should be proportionally combined with a harmonious physique, typical head and functional qualities. However, we have already seen that gigantic dimensions were a necessary prerequisite for effective rescue work in the mountains, and, therefore, are in full accordance with the purpose of the breed.
Unfortunately, these giants do not differ in longevity and they do not tolerate heat.
Weight in individuals with a maximum height can reach, and even exceed, 100 kilograms.
Weight St. Bernard at birth ranges from 800 grams to 1 kilogram. During the first week, the weight doubles, and by the end of the first month it reaches 4-5 kg, by the end of the second 10 - 15 kg, the third - 20-25 kg (!). By the end of the first year of life, the weight can exceed 80 kg. And in a mature individual, as mentioned above - 100 kg.