For accurate diagnosis of diseases often need research studies. Most often, dogs take blood and urine tests.
Complete blood count in dogs
It determines the composition of the blood, that is, the amount of hemoglobin, red blood cells, platelets and many other indicators. The rate depends on the age and health of the dog, that is, its history of diseases.
- The hemoglobin norm in the dog's blood is 74-180 g / l. An increase in its level indicates dehydration and thickening of the blood, and a decrease indicates anemia.
- The rate of red blood cells - 3.3-8.5 million / µl, their increased number may be due to bronchopulmonary pathology, polycystic heart disease, heart defects, liver or kidney neoplasms, as well as dehydration. Reducing the number of red blood cells can be caused by a large blood loss, anemia, chronic inflammatory processes.
- ESR - erythrocyte sedimentation rate. It should be up to 13 mm / h in a dog. The increased value of ESR is characteristic of various inflammatory processes and infectious diseases, it is also observed during pregnancy.
- The number of leukocytes should be in the range of 6-18.6 thousand / µl. Excess of this norm can be caused by infectious and inflammatory processes, leukemia, allergic reactions. A decrease - infectious pathologies of the bone marrow, genetic abnormalities, hyperfunction of the spleen.
- Elevated levels of platelets in the blood (more than 500 thousand / μl) can be caused by myeloid leukemia, polycythemia, and low levels are characteristic of anemia and systemic autoimmune diseases like lupus erythematosus.
Biochemical analysis of blood in dogs
Determines blood biochemical parameters. Changes in the main ones are indicative of very serious diseases.
- Glucose should be within 4 - 6 mmol / l. Their excess indicates diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism, stress, pancreatic necrosis, and a decrease on insulin overdose, insulinoma, hypoadrenocorticism.
- Total protein in a healthy dog is at the level of 50-77 g / l. Elevated evidence of chronic inflammatory or autoimmune diseases, dehydration. Low - about enteritis, nephrotic syndrome, pancreatitis, blood loss, fasting, heart failure, vitamin deficiencies, malignant neoplasms.
- Urea nitrogen should be 4.3-8.9 Mmol / L. Its increase indicates a violation of kidney function and urine excretion, acute liver dystrophy, absorption of large amounts of protein in the intestine. Lowering is about cirrhosis of the liver.
- Total bilirubin (component of bile) should not exceed 7.5 µmol / l. Otherwise it is necessary to suspect cirrhosis or liver tumors, hepatitis in dogs. An increase in creatinine by more than 133 μmol / l indicates impaired renal function.
Urinalysis in dogs
It goes as a visual assessment of transparency and color, and its chemical composition.