Oncological diseases are one of the most complex and mysterious diseases of the "civilization". These are malignant tumors, which are popularly called cancer.
Causes and localization of oncological diseases
The occurrence of these diseases is influenced by various factors: the region of residence, the breed and the age of the dog. The relationship between environmental factors and the incidence of tumors has long been observed. What was traced in the examples of the cities of Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Chernobyl.
Modern oncologists adhere to the multi-causal hypothesis of the occurrence of tumors. The main causes are: genetic predisposition, reduced immunity of the body, prolonged irritation of tissues with chemical, physical and biological agents, chronic ulcers, inflammation, cracks. Some viruses, various sources of radiation, and food contamination with mycotoxins are also dangerous.
As for the breed predisposition, it is noted that shepherd dogs and boxers are more likely to have lymphosarcomatosis and leukemia than dogs of other breeds. In the north of Europe and in the USA, leukemias are more common in Boston terriers, Cocker Spaniels, Fox Terriers and Poodles.
In general, dogs of any breed most often develop skin and breast cancer (especially in 5-6 year-old female dogs that have not given birth). Dogs of large breeds are especially subject to them: Caucasian and Central Asian shepherd dogs, Saint Bernards. Extremely rare is cancer of the digestive tract.
Symptoms of Oncology in Dogs
Symptoms of cancer largely depend on the affected organ. Neoplasms can be felt in these places. However, not every tumor can be noticeable. However, there are general signs that something is amiss with the dog's body.
In the presence of skin cancer on the body of the animal appear non-healing ulcers. If there are problems with the digestive system and the excretory system, it may cause an unpleasant smell from the mouth, chronic diarrhea or vomiting. There may be problems with urination and defecation, swallowing.
If the respiratory organs are affected, the dog may cough and it is difficult to breathe, bleeding will appear from the mouth. When problems with the joints, she begins to limp, there is a strong constraint in the movements.
Also a common symptom is a lack of appetite and a sharp weight loss.
Oncology treatment in dogs
- The principal methods of treating oncology are the surgical removal of a tumor in a dog, chemo and radiation therapy, and immunotherapy.
- The operation removes the tumor itself. The patient is carefully prepared for the operation, strengthening the body, weakened by the disease.
- Therapy is necessary as an auxiliary method that is used to fight metastatic cells. The fewer metastases in the body and the closer they are to a tumor, the greater the chances of a cure or at least prolongation of the normal life of the dog. If the metastases have spread far from the tumor, the disease becomes incurable.
In addition, it should be borne in mind that up to 60% of malignant tumors reappear in the same place.