Fracture is a complete or partial violation of the integrity of the bone. Fractures in dogs can be closed (the integrity of the skin is not broken) and open (the integrity is broken, the bone comes to the surface).
Causes of fractures
First of all, these are different mechanical effects, that is, different injuries in dogs: bruises, blows, falls on a hard surface, shocks, sharp jerks, gunshot wounds. Rarely, the pathological effects on the bone structure of the tissue against the background of diseases: dystrophic, inflammatory, neoplastic, metabolic disorders, and pregnancy become the cause.
Symptoms of Dog Fractures
At the turn of a limb:
- the dog cannot step on the injured paw and constantly keeps it on weight,
- in the place of the fracture edema begins to form quickly,
- the injured paw is twice as large as healthy limbs,
- paw can move freely and unnaturally
- when trying to inspect and touch the dog is in pain and whines
At the turn of the tail, also whines when trying to touch. With rib fractures when injured, the dog whines strongly, behaves restlessly, breathes faster and shallowly.
Very serious injuries are fractures of the skull and spine. Fracture of the bones of the skull is accompanied by concussion of the brain, bleeding from the mouth and nose, swelling of the brain and hemorrhage. Fractures of the pelvic bones are often accompanied by rupture of the bladder, rectum, uterus.
With such injuries, the dog cannot get up, lies all the time and whines. At the same time, her limbs are paralyzed, involuntary feces and urination with blood, bleeding from the genitals can be observed. Often the dog is shocked by severe pain. Spinal fractures injure individual vertebrae, compression or rupture of the spinal cord.
First aid for fractures
If the fracture is open and there is bleeding, stop it. It is necessary to treat the wound, close it with a napkin and apply a bandage. With a closed fracture, the first thing that needs to be done is to ensure immobilization, that is, fixing the injured limb or completely restrict the movement of the animal in the position in which it is currently located.
In no case should not try to correct the configuration of the bones. It only gives the dog terrible agony. An immobilized animal must be urgently delivered to the clinic because the choice of treatment method will depend on the X-ray of the fracture.
Treatment of fractures in dogs
With closed conventional cracks and fractures without shifting the paws, tail and ribs, conservative treatment is used. This provision of peace, the imposition of tires or supporting dressings (Robert Jones, Ehmera). Plaster dressings in the treatment of animals are ineffective.
If it is necessary to combine particles or fragments of bone with the help of special structures, then surgical intervention is used - osteosynthesis. This operation provides reliable fixation and the bone tissue has the ability to grow together favorably. For osteosynthesis, the following are used: the Ilizarov apparatus (for large and medium-sized dogs with complex injuries), the Kirchner apparatus (on the thigh, jaw, pelvis and spine), the polymer and the spokes (for the smallest breeds), the fixator inside the bone.
The main purpose of the treatment of fractures is to accurately match the bone fragments and fragments and securely hold them for a while in the correct position until complete adhesion. After osteosynthesis, the dog soon ceases to experience pain and quickly begins to gradually rest on the injured paw. And the sooner she starts to do it, the faster the paw will heal.
However, overloading should be prevented, avoiding running and jumping. For this, the first 4 - 6 weeks the dog is better to walk only on a leash. The treatment of very complex and life-threatening fractures of the bones of the skull, pelvis and spine depends on the degree of damage to the internal organs. However, most often the forecast is not comforting.