Necrosis is the death of tissues. There are several types of necrosis of localization. The most common in dogs is necrosis of soft tissue and bone necrosis.
Soft tissue necrosis includes gangrene, heart attack, pressure sores, moist (with pus) and dry necrosis. Necrosis of the bone can be complete (the whole bone becomes dead) or partial (not a large portion of the bone is affected). If the surface of the bone is necrotized, such a necrosis is called cortical, and in the case of deep necrosis, the central or deep one.
Causes of necrosis
Necrosis of soft tissue can be direct and indirect, depending on the reasons that caused it.
- Direct necrosis caused by direct injury. Indirect necrosis occurs due to malnutrition of the tissue. Direct necrosis occurs as a result of injuries, electric shock, various wounds, burns or frostbite, the action of chemicals (acids, alkalis).
- The reason indirect necrosis is a violation in the supply of nutrients and oxygen to cells and tissues as a result of prolonged squeezing, squeezing, pinching, thrombosis or spasm of nerves, blood vessels.
Necrotic infections are caused by pathogens that always accompany necrosis. Bone necrosis occurs when purulent inflammatory processes appear in certain layers of bone tissue, as well as in mechanical injuries (shocks, bruises, bone fractures), especially severe burns, frostbite, and chemical effects. Due to these factors, thrombosis occurs and the nutrition of the bone from the vessels is disturbed.
Symptoms of necrosis in dogs
- With necrosis of both soft tissue and bone, there is inflammation and swelling at the site of the lesion.
- The damaged area of the skin changes color, it hurts, pus may be released from the tissues, blisters and an unpleasant smell may appear.
- Over time, the whole body is poisoned, in connection with which the animal weakens, his body temperature rises.
Without medical care, the dog dies. The rate of development of necrosis depends on how long the mechanical effect on the tissue and the further effect of the infection lasted, as well as on the anatomical features of the organ that is affected by the necrosis.
In the treatment of necrosis can not do without surgery. Dead tissue and organs must be removed. Operations are of two types:
- necrotomy (dissection of necrosis in order to remove dead soft tissue)
- necrotomy (amputation or removal of a dead body).
Necrotomy is performed with extensive necrosis, most often on the chest and limbs. With this manipulation, necrotic tissue is cut down to live tissue. In this way, its nutrition improves and oxygen access is restored.
Necrectomy is performed so that the infection does not spread further, that is, to save the life of the animal. In addition, the treatment is carried out in the whole complex. In addition to surgical procedures, therapy is also used.
As a rule, drugs that have regenerative properties and immunostimulants are prescribed. After surgery, antibiotics and painkillers are used. When necrosis of the bone after surgery, antibiotics are prescribed, which are administered by intraosseous injections.
Often the cause of such a serious disease is quite minor injuries: bruises, shots, bites.
Therefore, in order to avoid tragic consequences, it is necessary to closely monitor the dog, especially during games and walking. Inspect all bruises, treat slightest wounds with antiseptics, always show more serious wounds to the vet, monitor dressings, do not let the dog lick.
If an animal has survived any operation, it is necessary to strictly follow all the rules of hygiene, so that neither the primary nor the secondary infection of the infection occurs. When the symptoms of necrosis are described, it is necessary to consult a specialist as soon as possible.