Lymphoma or lymphosarcoma is a malignant tumor that mainly affects the body's lymphatic system.
The concept of "lymphoma" combines more than 30 diseases, which differ in signs and course. In dogs, in more than 80% of cases, a multicentric or non-Hodgkin's form of lymphosarcoma occurs. It is she who primarily affects the lymph nodes.
The causes of lymphoma in dogs are still unknown, but there is a certain breed predisposition. Most often, lymphosarcoma affects the following breeds of dogs:
- St. Bernards,
- Cocker Spaniels
- Airedale Terriers
- golden retrievers.
Most often, adult animals between the ages of 6 to 12 years are sick.
Symptoms of lymphoma in dogs
The first symptom of a multicentric lymphoma, as a rule, is a significant increase in some pairs of lymph nodes, most often submandibular. However, in contrast to infectious diseases, with antibiotic treatment, the size of the lymph nodes does not decrease. In this case, the general condition of the dog may be normal.
- temperature rise,
- weight loss,
- refusal to eat
- indigestion (vomiting, diarrhea),
- blindness may develop
If lymphosarcoma is localized in the gastrointestinal tract or organs of the thoracic cavity, symptoms of dysfunction of this organ may occur.
Treatment of lymphosarcoma in dogs
For the diagnosis of the animal is carefully examined. The main analysis to confirm lymphosarcoma is the study of material from the affected lymph node - punctate. The choice of treatment program depends on the patient’s condition and the type of lymphosarcoma.
Chemotherapy is most commonly used with drugs such as
First, chemotherapy is performed, the purpose of which is to suppress the growth of tumor cells. And after that, the complications caused by chemotherapy drugs, which damage almost all normal tissues of the body, are treated. They are primarily affected by bone marrow and digestive tract cells. The frequency of chemotherapy can vary depending on the treatment regimen chosen by the doctor.
In lymphoma in dogs, several courses of chemotherapy are necessary, since the so-called "drug resistance" is rapidly developing in tumor cells. Because the drugs that are used in the first year, no longer inhibit tumor growth, and each course has to pick up others.
In lymphosarcoma, the prognosis is not comforting. The main goal of treatment for this type of tumor is to improve the quality and longevity of the dog. When using chemotherapy, the average life expectancy is up to a year. About a quarter of dogs live up to a year. If the general condition of the animal is poor, then only prednisone can be used, which will improve the condition, but does not affect life expectancy. The animal will live 1-2 months.