Dislocation in dogs is not normal, but more often a reversible violation of the location of the organ. Most often, this term is used in relation to the joints.
Meanwhile, dogs have dislocations of the eyeball. By dislocation of any joint is meant the displacement of the bones that form the joint, without violating their integrity. In this case, the injury is always accompanied by the indispensable damage to the soft tissues of the joint: ligaments, blood vessels, tendons of adjacent muscles, joint capsule are torn. All this inevitably leads to serious violations of not only the functions of the joint, but the entire limb.
Causes of Sprains in Dogs
Congenital and traumatic dislocations mainly occur in dogs. Congenital develop due to improper structure of the joint, that is, genetic marriage. These pathologies are often recognized by chance and already rather late - at 6-8 months of age and older.
The most common congenital dislocations of the elbow joint, knee cap (especially in dogs of dwarf breeds), not a complete dislocation of the hip joint. For the dislocation of a healthy joint, considerable effort is needed, so traumatic dislocations result from:
- falls from a great height
- auto injuries
- high speed collisions with an obstacle
- violent games
- sudden limb stuck while moving
Most often, traumatic dislocations are found in the elbow and hip joints as well as the kneecap. It happens and a certain average version of the dislocation. A minor injury to a healthy animal leads to a dislocation of a genetically predisposed, underdeveloped joint. Most often this happens dislocation of hip dysplasia, as well as dislocations of the cervical vertebrae and patella in dogs of dwarf breeds.
Signs of joint dislocation in dogs
With congenital dislocation, the main symptom is lameness, and with traumatic disability, there is a complete lack of ability to lean on a limb. After injury, the animal jumps on three legs, and at an external close examination, one can notice deformity and swelling of the contours of the damaged joint.
If there was a dislocation of the lower jaw, then there is a discrepancy between the teeth. When probing for a traumatic dislocation in a dog, severe pain is revealed. A characteristic symptom of dislocation is elastic, like a rubber fixation of the joint. There may be bone rubbing against the bone, clicks, gnash.
Help the dog
- First of all, you should not try to correct the dislocation on your own, you only bring additional suffering to the dog.
- The animal must be delivered to a specialist. To do this, it must be placed alone in a box, cage, car.
- Sick paw does not need to touch, knead, and also you should not once again shift and pull the animal.
- If there is such an opportunity, it is advisable to put ice or something from the freezer wrapped in a towel in the area of the damaged joint for half an hour.
- After receiving a dislocation and until the dog is brought to the clinic, it is not necessary to give it any treats, as anesthesia may be necessary.
Traumatic dislocations are treated by reposition. It can be closed or open - that is, surgical. After it fixing is necessary. In this case, the reduction of dislocation should be made as soon as possible after injury. If you delay it for a period of more than 1-2 days, a contraction of the muscles develops, a dense blood clot forms in the joint cavity, and scar tissue begins to form.
This process makes it difficult to close in and sometimes makes it impossible. Also over time, the surrounding soft tissue and articular surfaces can be significantly damaged. If it is impossible to make a closed one, an open reduction is performed.
Surgically, the destroyed fragments of the articular structures and fibrin clots are removed by surgery. After this, the joint returns to its original position. For any method of reducing the dislocation, general anesthesia is necessary. After reposition, the joint is fixed with bandages or longugettes.
In case of dislocations of the carpal or hip joints, surgical fixation is sometimes used with special needles, for dislocations of the ankle and elbow joints, with screws and wire. When the lower jaw is dislocated, sometimes the mouth is sewn up for 5-10 days.