One of the most common pathologies of the oral cavity in dogs is an abnormal bite. Diseases of teeth in dogs are often the cause of chronic lesions of the intestines, stomach, joints, skin, respiratory organs, kidneys, and even the heart. Since the state of the digestive system affects the overall well-being of the animal.
Improper bite in dogs makes it difficult to eat, injures the mucous membrane of the cheeks, gums, tongue and lips. It can also cause sinusitis. Dogs with occlusion defects cannot participate in exhibitions, even after successful correction, they cannot participate in breeding work, since jaw pathologies often have a genetic nature.
Causes of improper bite in dogs
Among the most common causes are genetic and hereditary abnormalities. Also affects the formation of incorrect teeth:
- developmental disorder,
- lack of mineral intake,
- training and games with excessive strain on growing teeth,
- untimely change of teeth
- molars too large and any other discrepancy in the size of the teeth compared with the size of the jaws.
To notice the incorrect position of the teeth can be after four months of puppy when changing milk teeth to permanent. At this point, oligodontia (not a complete set of teeth) or the presence of extra teeth (hyperdontics, polyodontia) is observed in some animals. In small breeds of dogs, a double row of teeth is often observed due to the failure of milk teeth (false polyodontics).
Types of bite anomalies
Three types of bite abnormalities are most common:
- cross bite
Prognathium one breed is not considered the norm. This is an underdeveloped mandible, when the lower incisors do not reach the upper ones. The upper premolars are displaced forward in relation to the lower premolars.
Progeny (undershot, reverse scissor bite or bulldog bite) occurs when lower incisors protrude in front of the upper ones. Such a bite is considered the norm in some breeds with a short muzzle: French and English bulldogs, boxers, shih tzu. Straight bite is also abnormal when the lower and upper incisors touch each other with their edges.
However, such contact may cause uneven wear and early tooth loss. But for some breeds it is considered normal. TThere are also anomalies such as anterior crossbite. (one or several lower incisors are located in front of the upper incisors), bite curve (one side of the jaw grows faster than the other), open bite (some incisors do not touch each other and are spaced vertically). There are also impacted teeth.
Correct bite in dogs
Orthodontics deals with warning and correcting bite anomalies. Doctors insist, the sooner the dog bite is corrected, the faster and easier you can achieve good results. The correction takes place with the help of bracket systems - special structures for correcting the bite and alignment of the teeth. They are removable and non-removable.
The most modern removable systems are acrylic transparent caps that press on the teeth in the right direction. They are changed every one to two weeks so that the teeth are constantly shifted. Removable modified braces for small puppies in the form of a rubber ring are also often used. Fixed structures are fixed before bite correction. The doctor periodically tightens the plates to adjust the degree of rotation and inclination of the tooth to be corrected.