Hounds dogs call hunting breeds with special qualities. Their purpose is to find the track of a four-legged game with a scent, follow this trail with a bark and chase the game either until its complete exhaustion, or until the hunter's ambush.
They also hunt deer, wild boars, wild goats, sometimes moose and even bears.
Hunting with their hounds dates back to the 13th century, but until the end of the 19th century there were no purebred dogs.
The main properties of hounds
- viscosity, which is the maximum duration of the pursuit of the beast, the dog’s perseverance;
- polazistost (the ability to smell and find game);
- good flair;
- loyalty (barking only for the game she is chasing);
- tirelessness during prolonged persecution);
- good voice (clear, strong and sonorous barking);
- schooling (the ability to run in a flock, without separating from each other);
- politeness, that is, obedience to the hunter and indifference to pets;
- staying - obedience to the challenge of the hunter.
These qualities in dogs begin to develop from 10-12 months of age a puppy during special training - surges. They are held in the spring, and then repeated before the hunt, in August. Before surges, dogs are taught to sound the horns, to livestock and to the bow - they are joined together in short chains for collars in pairs.
Hound Dog Breeds
The breeds of hounds are divided into groups: western, eastern, and barbed.
Western hounds have a blunt, thick face, round and long ears, and a long thin tail. Their short hair without undercoat may have markings. The oldest representative of the western hounds of dogs is the French hounds of St. Hubert. True, they have long become pet dogs. But this breed resulted in the hounds of the Norman, Gascon, artesian, Puatevene, Saint-Aongese, Vendean, Ariège, Porcelain, Overnillian hounds. Such well-known breeds as harriers and bigley, German bloodhounds belong to the western hounds.
Oriental hounds are distinguished by a flat wolf nose, short ears at an angle, and a short tail upwards. They have no dewclaws. On the muzzle and on the legs, the hair is short, and on the sides and the back is longer, on the neck it often forms a wolf's mane. Their suit is also predominantly wolf, but there are yellow markings of different shades, the end of the tail is white.
Breasted hounds turned out from long-standing crossings of shepherd dogs with hounds. They are distinguished by a round skull, round ears and a short face. They are not very fast, but persistent in their persecution and angry, and also have plaintive voices. Gray griffins of St. Louis, vandeyskie, red Breton, Niverney, Bress. Russian brudosty hounds have become a rarity. They are large, gray suit, stubborn and ferocious, possess tirelessness, good sense and malice towards the beast. In England, famous otter dogs are able to swim without harm to health, even when ice appears.
There are other varieties of hounds: ancient Russian, Kostroma, Russian piebald, harlequins, Anglo-Russian hounds.